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Efficacy Data for REXULTI® (brexpiprazole)

Explore the short-term and maintenance data for REXULTI

Efficacy Data for REXULTI® (brexpiprazole)

Explore the short-term and maintenance data for REXULTI

Short-term: Two 6-week, pivotal trials evaluated efficacy and safety in patients with schizophrenia (SZ) who would benefit from hospitalization

REXULTI pivotal trial design1-3:

  • Two 6-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose pivotal trials conducted in patients who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for SZ and would benefit from hospitalization or continued hospitalization for an acute exacerbation of symptoms
  • Treatment initiated at 1 mg/day on Days 1–4, titrated to 2 mg/day on Days 5–7, then maintained or increased to 4 mg/day on Day 8, depending on treatment arm
  • Primary endpoint was change in total PANSS score from baseline to 6 weeks

 

Patient demographic—average baseline PANSS total score: moderately to markedly ill

Study 3 and Study 4: REXULTI—mean baseline
PANSS total score at randomization1,4,5,a

The PANSS is a 30-item scale that measures positive symptoms of SZ (7 items), negative symptoms of SZ (7 items), and general psychopathology (16 items), each rated on a scale of 1 (absent) to 7 (extreme); the total PANSS scores range from 30 (best) to 210 (worst).

Chart: REXULTI Study 3 and Study 4 clinical trial designChart: REXULTI Study 3 and Study 4 clinical trial design
Swipe to view more

aPatients were hospitalized for screening and throughout the 6-week treatment phase.3

bMean baseline PANSS total scores (SD) for patients were Study 3: REXULTI 2 mg/day, 95.9 (13.8); REXULTI 4 mg/day, 94.7 (12.1); placebo, 95.7 (11.5); Study 4: REXULTI 2 mg/day, 96.3 (12.9); REXULTI 4 mg/day, 95.0 (12.4); placebo, 94.6 (12.8).1

cn=358; sum of patients in the efficacy analyses who received placebo in Study 3 and Study 4.1

dn=718; sum of patients in the efficacy analyses who received REXULTI 2 mg/day or 4 mg/day in Study 3 and Study 4.1

DSM-IV-TR, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (Text Revision); PANSS, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; SD, standard deviation.


Short-term data: 20-point reduction in PANSS total score from baseline with REXULTI 4 mg across 2 trials

Study 3 and Study 4: REXULTI 4 mg/day—
reduction in PANSS total score
vs placebo in pooled data at 6 weeks1,6

Study 3 and Study 4: REXULTI 4 mg/day—reduction
in PANSS total score vs placebo in pooled data at 6 weeks1,6

Chart: REXULTI Study 3 and Study 4 clinical trial designChart: REXULTI Study 3 and Study 4 clinical trial design
Swipe to view more

ep<0.0001 vs placebo.6

Adapted with permission.


Difference in mean reduction in PANSS total score vs placebo at Week 6 in both pivotal trials

Study 31,2

Study 3

Study 41,3

Study 4
  • Statistical significance was achieved at 2 mg/day vs placebo in Study 31,2
  • A 1-mg/day treatment arm was included in Study 4. Statistical significance was not achieved for the primary endpoint with either the 1-mg/day dose or the 2-mg/day dose compared with placebo (p>0.05)3

The PANSS is a 30-item scale that measures positive symptoms of SZ (7 items), negative symptoms of SZ (7 items), and general psychopathology (16 items), with each rated on a scale of 1 (absent) to 7 (extreme); the total PANSS scores range from 30 (best) to 210 (worst).

CI, confidence interval; LS, least squares.

Contraindication:

In patients with known hypersensitivity reaction to brexpiprazole or any of its components. Reactions have included: rash, facial swelling, urticaria and anaphylaxis.


Maintenance: PANSS total score during stabilization and maintenance phases

Study 5 trial design: REXULTI—PANSS total score during stabilization
and maintenance phases for REXULTI 1 mg/day to 4 mg/day and placebo7,8

Single-blind stabilizationf

Patients with SZ were stabilized on flexible doses of REXULTI 1 mg/day to 4 mg/day for at least 12 consecutive weeks

Double-blind maintenance

Patients who met stabilizationf criteria and remained on a stable dose of REXULTI for at least the last 4 weeks were then randomized 1:1 for 52 weeks to either:

  • Their achieved stable dose of REXULTI 1 mg/day to 4 mg/day
  • Placebo
Chart: REXULTI Study 3 and Study 4 clinical trial designChart: REXULTI Study 3 and Study 4 clinical trial design
Swipe to view more

PANSS total mean baseline scores [SD] (at Week 0 in the maintenance phase): REXULTI 1 mg/day to 4 mg/day (n=97), 56.5 [8.7]; placebo (n=105), 58.1 [8.1].7

Patients had a PANSS total score of >80 and, if needed, were part of a 1- to 4-week washout phase of previous medications before moving on to stabilization.

fStabilization was defined as all of the following: (1) outpatient status; (2) PANSS total score ≤70; (3) a PANSS score of ≤4 on conceptual disorganization, suspiciousness, hallucinatory behavior, and unusual thought content; (4) CGI-severity ≤4; (5) no current suicidal behavior; (6) no violent or aggressive behavior resulting in injury or property damage.7

The PANSS is a 30-item scale that measures positive symptoms of SZ (7 items), negative symptoms of SZ (7 items), and general psychopathology (16 items), each rated on a scale of 1 (absent) to 7 (extreme); the total PANSS scores range from 30 (best) to 210 (worst).

CGI, Clinical Global Impressions; PANSS, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; SD, standard deviation.

Important Warning and Precaution for Cerebrovascular Adverse Events, Including Stroke:

In clinical trials, elderly patients with dementia randomized to risperidone, aripiprazole, and olanzapine had a higher incidence of stroke and transient ischemic attack, including fatal stroke. REXULTI is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis.


Demonstrated efficacy as maintenance treatment

  • Mean dose during maintenance phase was 3.6 mg/day7
  • Primary endpoint was time from randomization to impending relapse in the maintenance phase1
    • Impending relapse was defined as any of the following:
      1. CGI-improvement score of ≥5 and an increase to >4 on PANSS conceptual disorganization, hallucinatory behavior, suspiciousness, or unusual thought content, with either a ≥2 increase on a specific item or ≥4 increase on the combined 4 items
      2. Hospitalization due to worsening of psychotic symptoms
      3. Current suicidal behavior
      4. Violent/aggressive behavior

 

Study 5: Reduced risk of impending relapse1,7

gp<0.0001 vs placebo. The proportion of patients in the maintenance phase who experienced impending relapse with brexpiprazole was 13.5% compared with 38.5% for placebo.

  • The risk of impending relapse was calculated using a Kaplan-Meier estimation over the 52 weeks. The calculated hazard ratio (HR=0.292 [95% CI: 0.156, 0.548], p<0.0001) was used to estimate the reduction in risk of impending relapse for patients continuing treatment with REXULTI vs those given placebo7
  • Trial was terminated early because maintenance of efficacy had been demonstrated1

Of the 202 patients randomized, 2 patients were excluded from the efficacy analysis: 1 patient taking REXULTI did not have post-randomization efficacy evaluations, and 1 patient taking placebo did not take the investigational medicinal product.1

CI, confidence interval; HR, hazard ratio.

Important Warning and Precaution for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS):

NMS is a potentially fatal symptom complex reported in association with administration of antipsychotic drugs. Clinical signs of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status and evidence of autonomic instability. Additional signs may include elevated creatinine phosphokinase, myoglobinuria (rhabdomyolysis), and acute renal failure. Manage NMS with immediate discontinuation of REXULTI, intensive symptomatic treatment, and monitoring.


Continue exploring REXULTI

Clinical Safety Profile

Safety considerations for REXULTI in the treatment of adults with schizophrenia.1

Dosing Information

Learn about once-daily treatment with a target dose of 2 mg–4 mg.1

INDICATIONS and IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION for REXULTI® (brexpiprazole)

INDICATIONS

REXULTI is indicated for:

  • Use as an adjunctive therapy to antidepressants in adults with major depressive disorder
  • Treatment of schizophrenia in adults

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION

WARNING: INCREASED MORTALITY IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH DEMENTIA-RELATED PSYCHOSIS

Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at increased risk of death. REXULTI is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis.

WARNING: SUICIDAL THOUGHTS AND BEHAVIORS

Antidepressants increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in patients aged 24 years and younger. Monitor for clinical worsening and emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. The safety and effectiveness of REXULTI have not been established in pediatric patients.

Contraindication: In patients with known hypersensitivity reaction to brexpiprazole or any of its components. Reactions have included: rash, facial swelling, urticaria and anaphylaxis.

Cerebrovascular Adverse Events, Including Stroke: In clinical trials, elderly patients with dementia randomized to risperidone, aripiprazole, and olanzapine had a higher incidence of stroke and transient ischemic attack, including fatal stroke. REXULTI is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis.

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS): NMS is a potentially fatal symptom complex reported in association with administration of antipsychotic drugs. Clinical signs of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status and evidence of autonomic instability. Additional signs may include elevated creatinine phosphokinase, myoglobinuria (rhabdomyolysis), and acute renal failure. Manage NMS with immediate discontinuation of REXULTI, intensive symptomatic treatment, and monitoring.

Tardive Dyskinesia (TD): Risk of TD, and the potential to become irreversible, are believed to increase with duration of treatment and total cumulative dose of antipsychotic drugs. TD can develop after a relatively brief treatment period, even at low doses, or after discontinuation of treatment. For chronic treatment, use the lowest dose and shortest duration of REXULTI needed to produce a clinical response. If signs and symptoms of TD appear, drug discontinuation should be considered.

Metabolic Changes: Atypical antipsychotic drugs have caused metabolic changes including:

  • Hyperglycemia/Diabetes Mellitus: Hyperglycemia, in some cases extreme and associated with ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar coma or death, has been reported in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. Assess fasting plasma glucose before or soon after initiation of antipsychotic medication, and monitor periodically during long-term treatment.
  • Dyslipidemia: Atypical antipsychotics cause adverse alterations in lipids. Before or soon after initiation of antipsychotic medication, obtain a fasting lipid profile at baseline and monitor periodically during treatment.
  • Weight Gain: Weight gain has been observed in patients treated with REXULTI. Monitor weight at baseline and frequently thereafter.

Pathological Gambling and Other Compulsive Behaviors: Intense urges, particularly for gambling, and the inability to control these urges have been reported while taking REXULTI. Other compulsive urges have been reported less frequently. Prescribers should ask patients or their caregivers about the development of new or intense compulsive urges. Consider dose reduction or stopping REXULTI if such urges develop.

Leukopenia, Neutropenia, and Agranulocytosis: Leukopenia and neutropenia have been reported with antipsychotics. Agranulocytosis (including fatal cases) has been reported with other agents in this class. Monitor complete blood count in patients with pre-existing low white blood cell count (WBC)/absolute neutrophil count or history of drug-induced leukopenia/neutropenia. Discontinue REXULTI at the first sign of a clinically significant decline in WBC and in severely neutropenic patients.

Orthostatic Hypotension and Syncope: Atypical antipsychotics cause orthostatic hypotension and syncope. Generally, the risk is greatest during initial dose titration and when increasing the dose. Monitor in patients vulnerable to hypotension, and those with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.

Falls: Antipsychotics may cause somnolence, postural hypotension, motor and sensory instability, which may lead to falls causing fractures or other injuries. For patients with diseases, conditions, or medications that could exacerbate these effects, complete fall risk assessments when initiating treatment and recurrently during therapy.

Seizures: REXULTI may cause seizures and should be used with caution in patients with a history of seizures or with conditions that lower the seizure threshold.

Body Temperature Dysregulation: Use REXULTI with caution in patients who may experience conditions that increase body temperature (e.g., strenuous exercise, extreme heat, dehydration, or concomitant use with anticholinergics).

Dysphagia: Esophageal dysmotility and aspiration have been associated with antipsychotics, including REXULTI, and should be used with caution in patients at risk for aspiration.

Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment: REXULTI has the potential to impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills. Patients should not drive or operate hazardous machinery until they are reasonably certain REXULTI does not affect them adversely.

Concomitant Medication: Dosage adjustments are recommended in patients who are known cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 poor metabolizers and in patients taking concomitant CYP3A4 inhibitors or CYP2D6 inhibitors or strong CYP3A4 inducers.

Most commonly observed adverse reactions: In clinical trials, the most common adverse reactions were:

  • Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) (adjunctive treatment to antidepressant therapy; ≥5% incidence and at least twice the rate of placebo for REXULTI vs. placebo): akathisia and weight increase
  • Schizophrenia (≥4% incidence and at least twice the rate of placebo for REXULTI vs. placebo): weight increased

Dystonia: Symptoms of dystonia may occur in susceptible individuals during the first days of treatment and at low doses.

Pregnancy: Adequate and well-controlled studies to assess the risks of REXULTI during pregnancy have not been conducted. REXULTI should be used during pregnancy only if the benefit justifies the risk to the fetus.

Lactation: It is not known if REXULTI is excreted in human breast milk. A decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc. at 1-800-438-9927 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 (www.fda.gov/medwatch).

Please see accompanying FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION, including BOXED WARNING.

References:

  1. REXULTI [prescribing information]. Tokyo, Japan: Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.
  2. Correll CU, Skuban A, Ouyang J, et al. Efficacy and safety of brexpiprazole for the treatment of acute schizophrenia: a 6-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry. 2015;172(9):870-880.
  3. Kane JM, Skuban A, Ouyang J, et al. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, controlled phase 3 trial of fixed dose brexpiprazole for the treatment of adults with acute schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2015;164(1-3):127-135.
  4. Leucht S, Kane JM, Kissling W, et al. What does the PANSS mean? Schizophr Res. 2005;79(2-3):231-238.
  5. Data on file (REX-168).
  6. Correll CU, Skuban A, Hobart M, et al. Efficacy of brexpiprazole in patients with acute schizophrenia: review of three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. Schizophr Res. 2016;174(1-3):82-92.
  7. Fleischhacker WW, Hobart M, Ouyang J, et al. Efficacy and safety of brexpiprazole (OPC-34712) as maintenance treatment in adults with schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study [published online ahead of print October 13, 2016]. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. doi:10/1093/ijnp/pywo76.
  8. Hobart M, Ouyang J, Forbes A. Efficacy and safety of brexpiprazole (OPC-34712) as maintenance treatment in adults with schizophrenia: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study. Poster presented at: American Society of Clinical Psychopharmacology Annual Meeting; June 22-25, 2015; Miami, FL.
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION and INDICATIONS for REXULTI® (brexpiprazole)
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IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION

WARNING: INCREASED MORTALITY IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH DEMENTIA-RELATED PSYCHOSIS

Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at increased risk of death. REXULTI is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis.

WARNING: SUICIDAL THOUGHTS AND BEHAVIORS

Antidepressants increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in patients aged 24 years and younger. Monitor for clinical worsening and emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. The safety and effectiveness of REXULTI have not been established in pediatric patients.

Contraindication: In patients with known hypersensitivity reaction to brexpiprazole or any of its components. Reactions have included: rash, facial swelling, urticaria and anaphylaxis.

Cerebrovascular Adverse Events, Including Stroke: In clinical trials, elderly patients with dementia randomized to risperidone, aripiprazole, and olanzapine had a higher incidence of stroke and transient ischemic attack, including fatal stroke. REXULTI is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis.

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS): NMS is a potentially fatal symptom complex reported in association with administration of antipsychotic drugs. Clinical signs of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status and evidence of autonomic instability. Additional signs may include elevated creatinine phosphokinase, myoglobinuria (rhabdomyolysis), and acute renal failure. Manage NMS with immediate discontinuation of REXULTI, intensive symptomatic treatment, and monitoring.

Tardive Dyskinesia (TD): Risk of TD, and the potential to become irreversible, are believed to increase with duration of treatment and total cumulative dose of antipsychotic drugs. TD can develop after a relatively brief treatment period, even at low doses, or after discontinuation of treatment. For chronic treatment, use the lowest dose and shortest duration of REXULTI needed to produce a clinical response. If signs and symptoms of TD appear, drug discontinuation should be considered.

Metabolic Changes: Atypical antipsychotic drugs have caused metabolic changes including:

  • Hyperglycemia/Diabetes Mellitus: Hyperglycemia, in some cases extreme and associated with ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar coma or death, has been reported in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. Assess fasting plasma glucose before or soon after initiation of antipsychotic medication, and monitor periodically during long-term treatment.
  • Dyslipidemia: Atypical antipsychotics cause adverse alterations in lipids. Before or soon after initiation of antipsychotic medication, obtain a fasting lipid profile at baseline and monitor periodically during treatment.
  • Weight Gain: Weight gain has been observed in patients treated with REXULTI. Monitor weight at baseline and frequently thereafter.

Pathological Gambling and Other Compulsive Behaviors: Intense urges, particularly for gambling, and the inability to control these urges have been reported while taking REXULTI. Other compulsive urges have been reported less frequently. Prescribers should ask patients or their caregivers about the development of new or intense compulsive urges. Consider dose reduction or stopping REXULTI if such urges develop.

Leukopenia, Neutropenia, and Agranulocytosis: Leukopenia and neutropenia have been reported with antipsychotics. Agranulocytosis (including fatal cases) has been reported with other agents in this class. Monitor complete blood count in patients with pre-existing low white blood cell count (WBC)/absolute neutrophil count or history of drug-induced leukopenia/neutropenia. Discontinue REXULTI at the first sign of a clinically significant decline in WBC and in severely neutropenic patients.

Orthostatic Hypotension and Syncope: Atypical antipsychotics cause orthostatic hypotension and syncope. Generally, the risk is greatest during initial dose titration and when increasing the dose. Monitor in patients vulnerable to hypotension, and those with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.

Falls: Antipsychotics may cause somnolence, postural hypotension, motor and sensory instability, which may lead to falls causing fractures or other injuries. For patients with diseases, conditions, or medications that could exacerbate these effects, complete fall risk assessments when initiating treatment and recurrently during therapy.

Seizures: REXULTI may cause seizures and should be used with caution in patients with a history of seizures or with conditions that lower the seizure threshold.

Body Temperature Dysregulation: Use REXULTI with caution in patients who may experience conditions that increase body temperature (e.g., strenuous exercise, extreme heat, dehydration, or concomitant use with anticholinergics).

Dysphagia: Esophageal dysmotility and aspiration have been associated with antipsychotics, including REXULTI, and should be used with caution in patients at risk for aspiration.

Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment: REXULTI has the potential to impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills. Patients should not drive or operate hazardous machinery until they are reasonably certain REXULTI does not affect them adversely.

Concomitant Medication: Dosage adjustments are recommended in patients who are known cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 poor metabolizers and in patients taking concomitant CYP3A4 inhibitors or CYP2D6 inhibitors or strong CYP3A4 inducers.

Most commonly observed adverse reactions: In clinical trials, the most common adverse reactions were:

  • Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) (adjunctive treatment to antidepressant therapy; ≥5% incidence and at least twice the rate of placebo for REXULTI vs. placebo): akathisia and weight increase
  • Schizophrenia (≥4% incidence and at least twice the rate of placebo for REXULTI vs. placebo): weight increased

Dystonia: Symptoms of dystonia may occur in susceptible individuals during the first days of treatment and at low doses.

Pregnancy: Adequate and well-controlled studies to assess the risks of REXULTI during pregnancy have not been conducted. REXULTI should be used during pregnancy only if the benefit justifies the risk to the fetus.

Lactation: It is not known if REXULTI is excreted in human breast milk. A decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc. at 1-800-438-9927 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 (www.fda.gov/medwatch).

INDICATIONS

REXULTI is indicated for:

  • Use as an adjunctive therapy to antidepressants in adults with major depressive disorder
  • Treatment of schizophrenia in adults

Please see accompanying FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION, including BOXED WARNING.